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Neurological Background Paleontology: The Incidence of Bipedalism in Human Evolution Bone, Muscle and Organ Associations - Muscle Associations The connections: tracing symptoms to organic diseases The cerebral cortex

Neuro Kinesiology


In our view, bipedalism not only preceded the further development of cranial bones in humans but also induced it. Clinical findings based on examinations and treatments of patients with a wide variety of traumas substantiate the theory that there is an unidirectional line of association between the calcaneus and the muscle tissues surrounding the bone on the one hand and between the cranium and the muscle tissues of the face and skull on the other hand.

Bipedalism has modified the size, shape, and general configuration of the calcaneus, and this remodeling has, in turn, led to a parallel revamping of the cranial bones and of the central nervous system. New neural connections and new neural coordination centers have been created for equilibrium, walking, and running, and specialized motor and sensory neurons have appeared to control the extremities. As a result, the size of the brain and the cranial capacity started to increase. The temporal, parietal, and frontal bones expanded, giving the cranium a higher and more rounded appearance (see Figure 2-3A). The cerebral hemispheres became larger and more convoluted around the central sulcus, in the precentral and postcentral gyri and in the frontal lobes. Simultaneously, the afferent sensory neurons and efferent motor fibers increasingly began to decussate and pack more information in the opposite cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres.

Contralateral motion is the most logical explanation for the development of the brain in Modern Man. The hand and the foot are the extension of the cerebral cortex in both motor control and sensory perception. But, the cerebral cortex is also an extension of the hand and foot, and we could almost venture to say that, over the thousands of years of human evolution, the hand and the foot have acted as mentors to the brain. All the refined and accurate sensori stimuli originating in the extremities reach the cerebral cortex, which itself control all the refined movements of the hands, fingers, feet, and toes through the cortico-spinal tract.

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